Among the Confucian books, the main one for us is Lun-Yu.
This is the "Pentateuch" ("Wu-jing"), which includes "Book of Songs" ("Shi-jing"), "Book of History" ("Shu-jing"), "Book of Changes" ("I – "). jing ”),“ Book of Acts ”(“ Li-jing ”), later the chronicle“ Chun-tsyu ”was created. Yi Jing also includes a later commentary on Sichizhuang. The Pentateuch has been the foundation of the educated Chinese throughout ancient and medieval Chinese history.
However, the Pentateuch has not survived in its original form. Shi Jing and Shu Jing were apparently developed by the first Chinese sage, Kun Fuji. According to tradition, in an era of rapid social change during the Qin Empire, they were burned and restored from memory. However, I-Jing, associated with the divination practice, avoided burning.
An interesting Chinese pre-philosophy of history outlined in Shu Jing. This is a conversation addressed to the people by the ruler of the Shan-Yin dynasty, Pan Gen, who planned to relocate the people to the other bank of the Yellow River. He contrasts the will of the people, on the basis of which Mr. Gen himself acts, with the will of the people, which prevents the people from understanding their benefits and advantages. Mr. Gen threatens to cut off the noses of these wills and kill them and all their families.
In pre-philosophy, yang and yin represent light and shadow, heat and cold, stubbornness and pliability, masculine and feminine, and take on more and more distant forms. The universe is an arena of endless struggle of these opposite beginnings. This is the original "dialectic" of the Chinese universe. The interaction of yin and yang gives rise to five elements. Shu Jing says ideas for narrative essay that "the first beginning is water, the second is fire, the third is wood, the fourth is metal, and the fifth is earth." From these beginnings, everything that exists has emerged.
In another version, "the sky created the five elements." The close connection, the indistinguishability of the physical and moral, natural and human, characteristic of the mythological worldview with its anthropomorphism, when, for example, the earthquake is explained by the image inflicted on a man by a woman (but not vice versa) , is thus preserved in philosophy. At the same time, it gives rise to pre-philosophical ideas about a certain pneuma "qi" – this primordial substance, the state of which is yin and yang. For example, in the book "Zo-zhuan" the following six states of "qi" are named: yin, yang, wind, rain, darkness, light. Qi itself takes two main opposite forms: yang, yin, as light and heavy substances. The idea of an impersonal world law – "tao", which means "way", is also emerging. This is both a moral and a cosmic law.
Along with the glorification of heaven, its power ("Heaven, giving birth to the human race, the body and the rules of life to all people"), "Shi-jing" also has great doubts about the justice of heaven, its power , even the image of heaven: Let those who have done wrong be held accountable for their evil. But who is not guilty of anything – why are they in the abyss of trouble? ". The question of the source of evil is raised.
The former explain this traditionally – the wrath of the cruel sky, others, trying to rehabilitate the sky, find the source of evil in people: "Disputes depend only on people." Such is the ancient Chinese primitive theodicy, according to which God is not the source of evil.
The origin of the Book of Changes is associated with the name Fu Xi, who had the body of a snake – one of the mythical rulers of antiquity. He taught people to fish and hunt. He saw on the back of a dragon that came out of the Yellow River, the writings that allegedly formed the basis of hieroglyphic writing. In Yi-Jing, however, we find only two main signs – solid and dashed lines, the first of which is yang and the other is yin.
We have before us a primitive dual system in which the Chinese tried to reflect all the most important phenomena of nature and society. Two solid lines – the big yang – mean the sun and heat, and two dashed lines – the moon and the cold. Small yang (dashed line over solid) – daylight. Small yin (solid line over intermittent) – night. The combination of yin and yang of three forms eight trigrams, where three yangs are the sky and three yin are the earth. The other intermediate six trigrams denote natural phenomena between heaven and earth: celestial water, celestial fire, thunder, wind, earthly water, and mountains. Then combinations of six elements – hexagrams (64 of them) are built. If yin is identified with zero and yang with one, then "performance" is denoted as 000000 (six yin), and creativity as 111111.
The emergence of Chinese philosophy
Ancient Chinese philosophy dates back to the Zhango period, the "golden age of Chinese philosophy." In its history there are pre-Khan and post-Khan sections, between them – the Qin and Han periods. For the khan’s section is characterized by pluralism of schools, the struggle of opinions. Non-interference of power in philosophy. There were six main schools of philosophy: Confucian, Moist, Legist, Taoist, school of yin-yang (natural philosophers) and school of names ("sophists"). Most of these schools are ethical and political, and a minority are metaphysical. In the post-Khan period, the first group strongly prevailed, Taoists and Buddhists were seen as unorthodox mystics.
China was dominated by practical philosophy, the problems of governing people, people, country. The worldview side of philosophy is less pronounced. Weak and logical system, which, however, complemented the classification. The logical apparatus in Chinese philosophy was poorly developed, the language itself without suffixes and inflections is not abstract enough. The connection with science was close, but science itself was a little theoretical. Ancient Chinese mathematics is devoid of evidence, it is not deductive. And this could not but be reflected in philosophy.
Confucius. Confucianism. The founder of ancient Chinese philosophy and even the "creator" of the spiritual face of the Chinese was Rong-ni, or Kun Fuji, who became known in Europe two millennia after his death as Confucius (Ukrainian – Confucius). The "Historical Notes" of the ancient Chinese historian Sima Qian say that Kun Fuji was born in the kingdom of Lu in the twenty-second year of Sun Gong’s reign (ie in 551 BC), when his father, who ruled Lu County in Zhou , was very old. , and the mother is young; he died in 479 BC (lived 72 years).
The source of our information about Confucius and Confucianism is the Confucian written tradition, and above all the Four Books. It includes:
Dasyue is a guide for officials written by a student of Confucius Zeng Tzu; "Rong-yun" ("Golden Middle", "Middle and Constancy", "Unchanging Middle", written by Confucius’ grandson Ji Xi; "Lun-Yu" ("Conversations and Sayings"), recorded by students of the philosopher’s thoughts both himself and his disciples, Meng Tzu, a book by the Confucian Mencius, who lived a century after Confucius.
Confucianism was also reflected in the aforementioned Pentateuch, where, according to tradition, Shi Jing and Shu Jing were edited by Confucius, Li Tzu was written by Confucians, and Chun Tzu was written by Confucius. Among the Confucian books, the main one for us is Lun-Yu. During the Qin Empire, it was burned, then rebuilt in three versions. The text now adopted consists of twelve chapters. An educated Chinese man memorized this book as a child and was guided by it all his life.
Confucius came from an aristocratic but impoverished family. This could not affect his teaching, which combines elements of the new with elements of antiquity. Confucius himself says that as a child he lived in poverty, but he had to learn because he has no value in the society in which he lives (Confucius had to be both a shepherd and a watchman), which at the age of fifteen he his thoughts to study, at thirty – gained independence, at forty – freed from doubt, at fifty – learned the will of heaven, at sixty – learned to separate truth from untruth, at seventy – began to follow the will of his heart, without breaking ritual. He had many disciples; the names of the twenty-two have survived.
The students told their teacher that he was gentle, friendly, polite, thrifty, compliant, he did not meditate, was not categorical in his judgments, did not show stubbornness and did not think about himself personally (he also taught four things: understanding of books, moral behavior, devotion to the emperor, and truthfulness). Confucius is self-critical. He did not think that he was born with his knowledge.
He is grateful for his knowledge and perseverance. His creative abilities are small. Although he often does not eat anything all day and does not sleep at night – he thinks – the benefits of this, it seems to him little, and he not only creates as much as he transmits. All his knowledge is the fruit of the love of antiquity in which he believes and which he loves. He speaks enthusiastically about "Shi-jing" – this book "can inspire, broaden your horizons, bring you closer to other people, teach you how to control your dissatisfaction."
In this book you will learn "how to serve your father at home and the state outside the home, as well as the names of animals, birds, grasses and trees." He who has not read Shi Jing is "like one who stands in silence, facing the wall." Confucius sees in the Book of Songs not so much a poetic work as the embodiment of the true doctrine of moral behavior and the best governance of the state. The historical ideal of Confucius is in the past.
Confucius did not consider himself a person who embodied ethical potential, a "noble man." The philosopher should neither grieve, nor doubt, nor be frightened. Few people know about him. Another thing, Confucius remarks bitterly, if he showed the skill of archery or chariot control. Don’t do that? He is not involved in governing the country, although he "would have succeeded in three years." After all, all his teachings are the art of governing the state, even the "Book of Songs" he studies in order to improve this art.
Such art is the subject of his teachings. But Confucius identifies it with the art of justice, morality. His policy is identical to ethics. Confucius does not rule out the cult of heaven; on the contrary, he fully accepts the ritual of worshiping heaven that existed in China and which could only be performed by a van.
The fate of Confucius’ teaching itself depends on the will of heaven, but it also favors him. He learned the will of heaven at the age of fifty, and all his life he served that will; heaven he is grateful to all. And although people do not know him, it is enough that "heaven knows me." He does not blame people. However, the sky of Confucius is no longer the mythological sky of Shi Jing.